1. Introduction

Group Project Proposal (Engineering)
SCHOOL OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, SINGAPORE


INVESTIGATIVE SKILLS IN SCIENCE


Names:
Tan Jing Zhi Lucas
Yew Chin Siang


Class: S2-04


Group Reference: F


A.    Indicate the type of research that you are adopting:


[  X  ] Improve a product or process: Industrial and applied research
          e.g. Development of a SMART and GREEN energy system for households  


  1. Type & Category


Type of research: 4 (Write down one number from 1 to 6)

Category  – 13 (Write down one number from 7 to 20)


Sub-category – g (Write down the sub-heading alphabet)  


Application of project relevant to SST Community, Society or the World:
     Our project is finding out how the shape of blades of turbines help to increase the speed of spinning turbines and in turn, produce more energy. This can help contribute to the world because turbines are a form of clean energy as it mainly relies on wind energy to spin the turbines. If we can find out the optimum shape for turbines, people can produce more energy faster and at the same time, not harm the environment.


C.    Write down your research title:


Investigation of the effect of blade profile and the direction of wind on the efficiency of wind turbines

D.   (a) Problem being addressed

Wind energy is not being produced efficiently and because of that, more fossil fuels are being burned to produce the energy, resulting in air pollution and thus an increase to global warming. We feel that with different shaped-blades or positioning of turbines, the amount of electricity they produce may increase.


     (b) Goals

We want to make wind power a more reliable source of energy as it is renewable instead of harmful fossil fuels as it is non-renewable and may eventually run out one day. We hope to achieve this by proving that different shapes of blades and positioning of wind turbines helps to increase how much electricity it produces.

(c) Specify Requirements


  1. Have all the room doors and windows are closed
  2. Make sure all fans are turned off
  3. Have a mini fan blowing at the turbines
  4. See how much electricity the turbines are generating when using the different shape blades
  5. We will be testing how well each shape of blade fare against whether the wind is perpendicular or parallel to the wind turbine.


(d) 3 possible Solutions


  1. We change the shape of the blade of the windmill.
  2. We can change the type of material the blades are made out of.
  3. Direction of wind to the blades(parallel/perpendicular)

(e) Choice and rationale for choice


Suggested factors for consideration:
Factors
Critical Thinking question
Weight
Is the weight suitable? yes
Size
Is the size suitable? yes
Cost to produce
Do you have the financial support to produce it? yes
Elegance
Is the solution simple, clever, or ingenious? yes, that is what we believe
Robustness
Is the solution sturdy, resilient, and unlikely to fail? Yes
Aesthetics
Is the solution tasteful and pleasing to look at? no, it is just a normal turbine
Resources
Do you have or can you get the materials you need? Yes
Time
Do have time to make the solution and debug it? yes
Skill Required
Do you have the skills to make the solution? yes
Safety
Is the solution safe to build, use, store, and dispose of? Yes
Ease of use
Is the device easy to use? Yes
Environmental Impact
Does the device in anyway, have a negative impact on the environment? No
Table 4: List of factors for consideration in the design of the prototype






Ranking matrix

Colour
Weight
Size
Cost to produce
Elegance
Robustness
Aesthetics
Resources
Time
Skill required
Safety
Ease of use
Environmental Impact
Row Total
Normalised value
Colour

0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0.00633
Weight
2

2
2
2
2
2
1
2
2
1
2
1
21
0.133
Size
2
0

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
19
0.120
Cost to produce
2
0
0

1
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
0
8
0.0506
Elegance
1
0
0
1

0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
4
0.0253
Robustness
2
0
0
2
2

2
1
2
1
1
1
0
14
0.0886
Aesthetics
2
0
0
1
1
0

0
0
1
0
0
0
5
0.0316
Resources
2
1
0
2
2
1
2

1
1
1
2
0
15
0.0949
Time
2
0
0
1
2
0
2
1

2
1
1
0
14
0.0886
Skill Required
2
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
0

1
1
0
9
0.0570
Safety
2
1
1
1
2
1
2
0
1
1

2
0
14
0.0886
Ease of use
2
0
1
1
2
1
2
1
1
1
0

0
12
0.0759
Environmental Impact
2
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2

22
0.139













Total
158

Table 1: The ranking matrix for factors affecting the choice


Decision making grid
Requirement

Solution 1
Solution 2
Solution 3
Factors
Normalised value
Votes (0 to 4)
Normalised votes
Votes (0 to 4)
Normalised votes
Votes (0 to 4)
Normalised votes
#1:Environmental Impact
0.139
2





#2:Weight
0.133






#3:Size
0.120






Total points







Table 2: The decision making matrix for the 3 most important factors.


<state the choice with rationale using the decision making matrix>


E.    Method – Description in detail of method or procedures (The following are important and key items that should be included when formulating ANY AND ALL research plans.)


(a) Equipment list:
 
- Cardboard and Toilet Rolls for making the blades
- 1 pair of scissors for cutting out the blades
- Fan (preferably a mini-fan that isn’t too strong)
- STELR wind project kit
- Blue tack
- Masking Tape
- Stopwatch/timer
- Retort Stand
- Measuring Tape


(b) DiagramsScreen Shot 2017-01-14 at 12.43.07 PM.png
(c) Procedures for building: Detail all procedures for construction of prototype


  1. Cut out each shape of blade, rectangular, triangular and rounded-edged, from a piece of cardboard. The dimensions for each piece are 9.6cm X 4.1cm
  2. Cut out three similar blades but using toilet rolls instead. This will create a curved effect
  3. We will attach four of each type of blades onto the turbine and experiment which is the most efficient.


(d) Procedures for testing: Detail all procedures for testing of prototype


  1. Put the fan 45 centimetres away while being parallel from the center of the turbine with the first blade type.
  2. After 20 seconds, find out the total power produced from the turbines and record it down.
  3. This process will be repeated 3 times to obtain the average.
  4. Steps 1-3 will then be repeated for each type of blade.
  5. The fan will then be moved so that it is 45 centimetres away while being perpendicular from the center of the turbine with the first blade type.
  6. Steps 1-3 will then be repeated.


  1. All the results will then be compared and the best type of blade to use for a windmill can be derived.


(e) Risk, Assessment and Management: Identify any potential risks and safety precautions to be taken.


Risk
Assessment
Management
When cutting out the blades for the windmill, sharp instruments are used and we can cut ourselves.
Medium
We can ask an adult to help us with the more intricate parts and use scissors instead of a penknife.
When plugging in the electrical plug into the socket we might get electrocuted.
Low
We can make sure our hands are dry before plugging it in.






Legend
Low
Unlikely and not severe harm

Medium
Likely but not severe OR Unlikely but severe

High
Likely and Severe harm
Table 3: Risk Assessment and Management table


(f) Data Analysis: Describe the procedures you will use to analyze the data/results that answer engineering goals


  1. We will take note of the different blade profiles and the total power the turbine produces each time
  2. The blade profile with the most power produced is the best blade profile for producing electricity


F. Bibliography: List at least five (5) major sources (e.g. science journal articles, books, internet sites) from your literature review. If you plan to use vertebrate animals, one of these references must be an animal care reference. Choose the APA format and use it consistently to reference the literature used in the research plan. List your entries in alphabetical order for each type of source.


(a) Books
Chiras, D. D., Sagrillo, M., & Woofenden, I. (2009). Power from the wind. Gabriola Island, BC: New Society .
Shea, K., & Howard, B. C. (2012). Build your own small wind power system. New York: McGraw-Hill.


(b) Journals
Jamieson, P. (2011). Innovation in Wind Turbine Design. doi:10.1002/9781119975441
Wind Turbine Technology. (2014). doi:10.1201/b16587
Rivkin, D. A., & Silk, L. (2013). Wind turbine technology and design. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Adaramola, M. (2014). Wind turbine technology: principles and design. Toronto: Apple Academic Press.


(c) Websites
Allianz. (n.d.). Retrieved January 15, 2017, from https://www.allianz.com/en/about_us/open-knowledge/topics/environment/articles/100505-top-ten-wind-power-countries.html/

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